FWD 2 Sales of Tea

HerbalEGram: Volume 11, Issue 11, November 2014

Sales of Tea & Herbal Tea Increase 5.9% in United States in 2013
2014 Tea Sales on Track to Set a Record

By Brian Keatinga, Ash Lindstromb, Mary Ellen Lynchc, and Mark Blumenthalb
Sage Group Networks, Seattle, Washington, USA
b American Botanical Council, Austin, Texas, USA
c SPINS, Schaumberg, Illinois, USA


Tea consumption in the United States, as in much of the world, is on the rise. Total retail sales (some exceptions noted herein) of bagged, loose, and concentrated teas in the United States increased by 5.9% in 2013 according to aggregated market statistics gathered by the market research firm SPINS (Table 1). This includes all types of tea and herbal teas in all packaging formats with the exception of ready-to-drink (RTD) tea sold through mainstream multi-outlets, natural, and specialty/gourmet channels. Growth continued into 2014 with sales from August 2013 through August 2014 in those channels up 5% over the previous period in 2012-2013. This is a significant indicator of a rapidly emerging interest in tea by US consumers

Tea Facts

  • After water, tea (i.e., beverages from the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) is the second-most consumed beverage worldwide.1
  • On any given day, more than an estimated 50% of Americans drink tea (including iced). On a regional basis, the South and Northeast have the greatest concentration of tea drinkers.1
  • Approximately 85% of tea consumed in America is iced. From 2002 to 2012, the ready-to-drink tea sector grew more than 15-fold.1
  • Instant tea is declining and loose tea is gaining in popularity, especially in specialty tea and coffee outlets.
  •  In 2012, Americans consumed well over 79 billion servings of tea — more than 3.6 billion gallons. About 84% of all tea consumed was black tea, 15% was green tea, with the remainder comprising oolong and white tea.1

Assembling a fully accurate statistical compilation of the US tea industry is a complex undertaking due to a lack of harmonized definitions and the fact that no commercial enterprise, trade association, or governmental agency tracks all of the diverse distribution channels through which tea is sold. Very few reporting entities monitor or analyze the US food-service industry specific to tea activity, despite the fact that the Tea Association of America estimates 85% of US tea consumption is iced tea, a majority of which is sold in food-service settings including restaurants, cafés, delis, and similar establishments. Additionally, a number of other tea distribution channels are not assessed by any one entity, including mail order, online, network marketing, Whole Foods Market, and thousands of independent specialty tea shops.

In 1990, sales of tea sold through all distribution channels in the United States was less than $1 billion dollars annually, according to Sage Group. Estimates of the total market size now range from $4 to 5 billion to upwards of $15 billion. The fact that tea is such a ubiquitous commodity sold in myriad packaging formats through a wide variety of diverse channels makes consistent quantification an imperfect science. Packaged Facts, a market research publisher based in Rockville, Maryland, forecasts that sales of tea in the United States will reach $25 billion in 2014. They predict $6.2 billion (or 25%) in sales from retail stores of all formats and $18.8 billion from food-service distribution.
Leaf tea dollar sales grew by 6% in 2013 in the mass market, and sales of fresh refrigerated teas grew by 4%, while instant tea dropped by 10%.2

Three primary factors are catalyzing the US demand for tea:

  1. Health & Wellness Trend: Consumers are seeking affordable, safe ways to enhance their personal wellness and self-care regimens.
  2. Media Coverage: Consistent media coverage delivering a stream of positive research validating the benefits of tea consumption — including potential prevention of certain diseases and/or enhanced states of wellbeing — is helping educate and motivate consumers.
  3. Evolving Retail Landscape: Thousands of independent and multi-unit tea retail outlets are expanding nationwide, offering greater consumer access to finer-quality specialty teas.

In 2012, global specialty coffee leader Starbucks acquired Teavana, the largest North American retail tea chain formerly based in Atlanta, Georgia and now located within Starbucks headquarters in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks paid $620 million to acquire Teavana, which comprised more than 325 shops and a vibrant consumer-direct online business as well. In 1999, Starbucks also purchased specialty tea maker Tazo, a producer of both black and green tea blends and herbal teas. Chief Executive Officer Howard Schultz described tea as a “$90 billion global market opportunity” in a press release posted on the company’s website in 2013.3 According to an article, Schultz said to “expect 1,000 such (Teavana) tea bars in the next five years as Teavana aims to do for tea what its parent company has done for coffee.”4 Unilever, parent company of Lipton, the world’s largest tea brand, also has entered the specialty retail tea business with its 2014 acquisition of T2, a multi-unit chain based in Australia. Additionally, Unilever has touted its ongoing interest in expanding further into the global tea sphere. George Jage, founder of the World Tea Expo, predicts there will be nearly “8,000 tea-specific retail outlets in the US by 2018; moreover, an estimated 40,000 traditional coffee retailers will generate more than 30% of their beverage sales from tea.”5

With few exceptions, 2013 was another banner year for the majority of bagged and loose tea categories within all distribution channels. Black tea (bags) held its seemingly permanent number one spot in dollar sales even with very modest gains (2.5%) over 2012. Iced teas remain in a solid second overall position due to many factors including very warm summers (2012-2013) and consumer populations reaching for alternatives to carbonated soda. Total sales volume for carbonated soda drinks fell 3% in 2013 — the ninth consecutive year of decline according to Beverage Digest6 — after declines of 1.2% in 2012 and 1% in 2011.

Iced tea, as measured by gallons consumed and total sales, is the single largest type of tea consumed in the United States, according to the Tea Association of America, yet most of this is consumed in food service establishments, which are not tracked by major consumer product monitoring agencies.

Green and white teas continue to hold a respectable third overall position in terms of total dollar sales, with a nearly 4% gain (tea bags) in 2013 over 2012. It is important to note that total dollar sales of white tea in the United States remain nominal, with very few brands offering white tea products and modest annual production (estimated by Sage Group at less than 1% of global annual tea production) in China’s Fujian province, where white tea originated and remains the top-producing region. Between the mid 2000s and 2011, green tea consumption in the United States increased at a far greater rate — high double digits for many product formats — and has declined, in bagged formats, to more sustainable growth rates. Green and white teas in loose forms significantly outperformed their bagged counterparts in 2013 with more than 25% growth over 2012. This is in part due to the increasing willingness by consumers to brew loose tea (which usually costs less than bagged tea) at home and also a result of the dozens of tea brands more effectively educating consumers on the superior flavors typically associated with loose teas vs. tea bags; such brands essentially are encouraging their customers to trade the convenience of tea bags for better “cup quality” (improved flavor, aroma, color, and mouth-feel). The fact that total green tea sales in the United States are approaching half that of black tea is impressive for a nation of tea drinkers who historically have favored black tea. The growing body of scientific research increasingly validating green tea’s health benefits is impressive, and announcements of recent positive findings are picked up by global media with more frequency.

Herbal beverage teas and medicinal teas sold in tea bags stood strong in fourth and fifth place, respectively, with both reaching impressive double-digit year-over-year gains of 11% for bagged herbal beverage tea and 15.4% for bagged medicinal teas. While loose forms of both exhibited increased sales for 2013 over 2012, their combined revenue was modest. When it comes to consumption of herbal beverage teas and medicinal teas, Americans still prefer the ease of a tea bag over loose tea, while many also consume herbal dietary supplements as analyzed in HerbalGram’s annual Herb Market Report.7 The rise in sales for herbal beverage and medicinal teas during 2013 can be attributed to many factors and is indicative of a growing interest in using readily obtainable botanicals to enhance personal wellness and self-care regimens. The 7.9% growth in herbal dietary supplement sales in 2013 vs. 2012, as calculated by SPINS/IRI and reported in HerbalGram, adds further validation to this perspective.

African rooibos (“red tea”; Aspalathus linearis, Fabaceae) also showed double-digit annual sales gains in loose form while rooibos in tea bags experienced steady increase. Rooibos has enjoyed consistent growth for more than a decade due its lack of caffeine, its naturally occurring antioxidants, and as a result of aggressive promotion by South African producers. While herbal beverage and medicinal teas are commonplace in Europe and Asia, Table 1 illustrates that Americans are starting to embrace them more proactively. The fallout over undesirable effects of caffeine in energy drinks, greater awareness of caffeine-insomnia connections, and coffee “burn-out” may also be contributing to the rise in sales of rooibos and herbal beverage teas as healthy, caffeine-free alternatives. The 15.4% rise in medicinal tea bag sales for 2013 also indicates significant and increasing consumer interest in supporting wellness-oriented lifestyle choices.

As shown in Table 2, sales of all bagged, loose, and concentrated teas sold through all channels in the United States through August 2014 remain steady. Iced tea sales declined slightly, perhaps due to consumers’ reaching more often in 2014 for ready-to-drink iced teas and for other non-tea beverage selections. It is worth noting that, for this most recently measured 52-week period for 2013/2014, annual sales had already topped $1.8 billion. Sales for all of 2013 were $1.75 billion. Should this upward trend continue or even accelerate, it is conceivable that 2014 tea sales – in all formats and channels – will exceed 2013 levels. Medicinal teas (tea bags), chai (tea bags), liquid concentrates (chai, iced tea, etc.), yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis, Aquifoliaceae; tea bags), green and white teas (loose), and herbal beverage (loose) teas all are scoring impressive double-digit gains. 2014 promises to be a very strong year for the US tea industry with record sales and energized growth momentum.

Chai tea is a traditional Indian tea-based beverage made with black tea and various spices such as ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiberaceae), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae), among others. Chai tea bags are showing considerable advances with a 20.2% increase, likely due to a greater number of brands adding chai to their tea bag lines. In this same realm, sales of liquid tea concentrates are exhibiting a very strong increase — 32.3% — over the previous year. These liquid teas most often are concentrated chai, tea and lemonade combinations, and other flavorful blends that allow consumers to prepare them easily, without any brewing, and in iced or hot drinks. Some of the smaller chai companies that started in the 1990s are maturing into sizeable ventures, and this is one reason the category is heating up: most manufacture liquid concentrates, not tea bags. A number of companies also are promoting liquid tea concentrates as a more economical way to enjoy tea based on the fact that they provide consumers a lower per-serving cost than most ready-to-drink teas

The Ready-to-Drink Tea Market

Ready-to-drink bottled teas have improved in quality over the last few years, which may be one reason why the category has expanded so impressively in the United States. Additionally, greater numbers of low-/no-sugar and organic RTD tea products have widened consumer choices further within the category. A decline in carbonated soda drink (CSD) consumption in the US also is driving the RTD tea segment. Although CSDs are the most widely consumed beverage in the US, CSDs reported a year-to-year drop in volume during 2013 – down 1.42% in convenience store outlets (one of the strongest distribution channels for RTD tea) compared to 2012.8

Market research firm Canadean notes in its Global Iced/RTD Tea Drinks Report that the $5.1 billion US market for RTD tea is expected to increase to $5.3 billion in 2014, with a projected growth rate of 6% through 2018.9 “The refreshing taste and perceived natural, healthy image of iced/RTD tea drinks will continue to generate growth and place the category in a good position to take advantage of the slowing carbonates market,” according to Canadean.8 CSD giant Coca-Cola continues to support its growing RTD tea beverage portfolio, which includes the Gold Peak®, Honest Tea®, and Fuze® tea brands. Certified organic RTD tea brand Honest Tea marked its one billionth beverage sale during June 2014, with 888 million unit sales since Coca-Cola acquired the brand in 2008.10 In spite of the positive performance of RTD tea brands owned by the CSD conglomerates such as Pepsi and Coca-Cola, CSD sales in the US have declined nine years in a row through 2013.6

While 2013 sales of RTD tea were flat or growing in the low single-digit levels in many distribution channels, the bottled tea category still holds plenty of promise when population growth and inflation are taken into consideration. “RTD canned and bottled tea sales are essentially flat and present a number of challenges,” said David Sprinkle at Packaged Facts (personal communication, October 31, 2014). “There are plenty of opportunities to continue to ratchet up category innovation by supporting the trend toward premiumization, incorporating unique ingredients, and pursuing innovations in packaging formats.”

After years of explosive US growth for RTD tea sales — taking the category to over $5 billion in annual revenue — the flattening out of 2013 sales vs. 2012, as reflected in Tables 3-5, is viewed as a temporary situation according to tea industry experts. The slowdown is likely attributable to a cooler summer nationwide (in the US) in 2013 vs. 2012, as RTD beverages sell better in hotter weather, as well as other factors including greater numbers of people brewing their own tea (bagged and loose)

Mainstream, multi-unit outlets — a channel comprising the food, drug, and mass market sector (or “FDM”; supermarkets, drugstores, and mass market retailers), military commissaries, select buyers clubs, and so-called dollar stores, but not convenience stores or coffee/tea retailers such as Starbucks — typically stock more conventional tea brands than specialty types, with fewer organic, long-leaf loose, and other types of tea more common to natural food and specialty gourmet outlets. Shoppers at mainstream outlets are purchasing greater varieties of tea types than ever before, but many still visit other retailers to purchase specialty teas. With tea bags and loose tea products as seven out of the top ten items ranked on sales (Table 6), it is clear the mainstream market consumers are seeking convenience.

The Natural Channel and Medicinal Teas

While liquid tea concentrates in the form of ever-popular chai and various iced black and green teas are making headway in natural channel stores, green and white, herbal beverage, and medicinal teas are among the five top-selling tea types. An aging “baby boomer” (Americans born between 1946 and 1964) population seeking less caffeine (characteristic of herbal and medicinal teas) and more support for their individual wellness programs is likely a catalyst to these top sales rankings for the aforementioned teas. A steady flow of media coverage spotlighting the positive outcomes of clinical trials on various teas — especially green — and herbs used in medicinal tea formulations also is contributing to elevated sales, up from lower sales statuses in the mainstream mass-market outlets prior to the mid-2000s.

It is fitting that the total revenue generated by medicinal teas (both bagged and loose) sold through natural channel outlets represents more than a third of all sales for 2013, according to SPINS. (These data do not include sales data from natural foods retail giant Whole Foods Market, which does not report its sales activity to SPINS. Whole Foods Market is a major US retail purveyor of tea, and Sage Group estimates the chain has total annual tea sales [of all types and packaging formats] of more than $100 million.) Natural channel retail outlets have been the pioneering destinations for such teas since the 1960s, and they have continued to promote the benefits of medicinal teas (wellness, functional attributes, etc.) to their customer bases decades later via in-store classes, newsletters, and knowledgeable clerks. Refinements in the flavor and manufacture of medicinal teas, as well as the utilization of standardized botanical extracts and formulation with pharmacopeial-grade herbs, also have boosted this previously minor category to super-star status.

The six top-selling medicinal tea brands for 2013 include Traditional Medicinals, Yogi Tea, Celestial Seasonings, Stash, Triple Leaf, and Organic India.

Green and white teas held a coveted second place position in the natural channel for 2013, outselling even black teas, which perpetually dominate green tea sales in mainstream channels. Natural channel consumers are generally aware of the health-promoting benefits afforded by green tea consumption, and many of the premium-grade green teas are available in natural channel outlets. Fittingly, in 2013, herbal beverage teas landed a comfortable third-place position in the natural channel, in which chai and African rooibos (“red tea”) also sell exceptionally well.
The cult-like fan-base for South American yerba maté purchases much of this botanical beverage from natural channel retailers, helping to place both bagged and loose forms among 2013’s top-ten sellers.

In the early 2000s, certified organic teas began to make solid inroads with American consumers, while certified Fair Trade tea was largely still in the germinal stage of project development with certifying agencies. Concerns over genetically modified products (referred to most commonly as GMOs, genetically modified organisms), including tea (and even tea-bag materials), simply were not in the public consciousness. Table 8 demonstrates that, in 2013, these three areas of interest and concern specific to tea have obtained significant market prominence, albeit still a small portion of total tea sales. Certified organic iced teas (and powdered mixes — considered a very small portion of the total for the two formats) and bagged medicinal teas led in ranking of organic teas with more than $105.9 million and $93.3 million in sales, respectively. Medicinal tea brands routinely seek out the purest possible botanicals — herbs, teas, and spices — which commonly equates to the utilization of certified organic ingredients free from pesticides and other chemical contaminants. Even with herbal beverage and black teas showing strong sales in the organic classification, SPINS-estimated sales for all organic bagged, loose, and liquid tea concentrates were $181.7 million for 2013, just over 10% of total US tea sales that year.

Total sales of certified Fair Trade teas as calculated by SPINS for 2013 were $75.4 million, with medicinal teas (bags) once again in the number-one spot at $20.5 million, with green and white teas (bags) a distant second, bringing in $7.8 million.

Non-GMO (genetically modified organism) teas pulled in sales of $103.1 million during 2013, according to SPINS. It is important to note that the authors were not able to locate any tea agency, association, or producer that is currently aware of teas (C. sinensis) being grown utilizing GMO technology. With consumer awareness and concerns about GMOs, some tea brands are nonetheless communicating that they are indeed “GMO-Free” to perhaps allay potential fears or questions.

It is worth noting that some plant ingredients used in medicinal and herbal beverage teas can be obtained from GMO-sources, such as cornsilk (Zea mays, Poaceae) style and stigma,11 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtaceae)12 and papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae) leaves.11 In teas formulated with excipients, colorants, extracts, flavors, and/or nutrients, GMO elements may be incorporated as well (J. Brinckmann, email to A. Lindstrom, November 6, 2014). Extracts and flavors sometimes utilize corn- and soy-based components that are not legally required to be declared on labeling; dry “natural flavors,” for example, frequently are produced by combining corn- and/or soy-based excipients with essential oils. According to the Non-GMO Project, 88% of the American corn crop is genetically modified and 94% of the soy crop.13

The specialty/gourmet channel (i.e., full-format supermarkets with more than $2 million in annual sales and with specialty items comprising at least 25% of overall volume, as well as high-end, experiential stores featuring full-service gourmet departments and high-quality products with a strong focus on specialty, imported, natural, and organic items), like the natural foods channel, consistently has supported specialty tea business development, and it is a prime “venue” for new tea brands to garner sales experience before making the jump to mainstream market shelves. In this channel, bagged teas (vs. loose or liquids forms) lead the pack — as they do in all channels — with their ease-of-preparation convenience. Black tea sales totaling $14.1 million for 2013 in this channel showcase its immense popularity with specialty/gourmet consumers as indicated by a nearly two-to-one lead in sales over the next closest category, green and white teas (bags), at $8.2 million in sales.

While specialty/gourmet consumers frequent these outlets seeking out exotic foods, flavors, and ingredients, it should be mentioned that even in this channel, interest in and purchases of medicinal tea is high. Total sales of $6.5 million in 2013 indicate this is a small percentage of annual medicinal tea sales in the US; nonetheless, that medicinal tea bags hold the fourth position of 17 monitored teas and formats illuminates the growing interest in medicinal teas.

As in the herbal dietary supplements sector, 2013’s top-selling herb ingredients in medicinal tea bags comprise those with structure-function claims such as immune and/or digestive support, stress regulation, and weight-loss promotion.

Chamomile, kava, and lavender are known for their anxiolytic effects, and passionflower has been administered to treat insomnia. Schisandra is a so-called “adaptogenic” herb with claimed stress-protective properties.

Senna is reliably popular as a natural laxative, and therefore utilized in products meant to treat constipation or promote weight loss. Ginger and various mints are used in digestive-support formulations, and fennel to treat flatulence. The presence of Garcinia cambogia illustrates the ongoing power of “The Dr. Oz Effect”; the cardiologist and talk-show host recently came under fire at a Senate hearing for his promotion of this purported weight-loss aid (among others) due to the alleged lack of scientific support.

Echinacea tea is part of many Americans’ cold and flu prevention and/or treatment regimens; licorice and slippery elm — due to their mucilaginous properties — are present in many formulations intended to soothe symptoms such as sore throat and cough, as is wild cherry bark. Eucalyptus, a major ingredient in many cough drops, often is utilized to relieve sinus and respiratory symptoms associated with colds and flu. Red raspberry leaf is a component of many pregnancy-support tea formulations

Tea Packaging

Folding carton “boxes” manufactured using boxboard remains the primary unit packaging for tea products for dry (bagged and loose) teas. Production of cartons is cost-effective for tea brands and, increasingly, such cartons are made from recycled or recyclable materials (and commonly printed with soy-based inks). While some smaller and mid-size tea brands utilize round canisters to merchandise their teas, this type of packaging has its limitations — they are not always recyclable, they make less-efficient use of precious shelf space on already-crowded retail shelves, and they are considerably more expensive than cartons. While canisters showed an 8.3% growth gain for 2013 — higher than what boxes delivered that same year (4.5%) — it is probable this rise is largely attributable to a couple of mid-size tea brands experiencing solid growth that are still using canisters vs. boxes. Many newer tea brands package their products in canisters in their early years and then convert their packaging to boxes later on, when the realities of lower unit costs are realized and the savings can be passed on to increasingly discerning consumers. During late 2013 and early 2014, a number of small-to-mid-size tea brands transitioned from canisters to boxes.

The “pod/cup” phenomenon originated with small, pre-measured portions of ground coffee packaged in a capsule-type unit that is then placed into an automatic electric appliance. Pressurized hot water then runs through the pod, making a cup of coffee. Pod machines formerly were utilized frequently in hotels and offices, but more recently, they have transitioned into home kitchens as well. A common trade and consumer complaint with this advanced brewing technology is the fact that a majority of pods are not fully recyclable, although some pod brands are getting close to that objective. During 2012 and 2013, tea pod products containing higher-quality specialty teas were launched by a few well-known specialty tea brands, as well as a large coffee and tea private label manufacturer that now offers tea pods in addition to traditional tea bags. The fast-and-easy preparation is ushering in a new era in tea preparation. Like the coffee pods before them, tea pods have a bright future within hospitality, workplace, and some food-service establishments. In spite of these developments, the unit cost of producing a pod — comprising both materials and manufacturing — leads many pod producers to utilize lower-grade teas; long-leaf teas that produce the superior cups of tea cannot be used in the pods’ constrained, small space. The short steeping time — due to the pressured hot water — for teas also produces a moderate cup quality. Regardless, pods are making a commercial splash and do offer a productive tea-brewing solution in busy environments. With multiple tea-pod manufacturers now in place, and a few specialty tea brands beginning to offer their own branded tea pods, this market segment shows many signs of potential explosive growth.


More impressive than the current size of the tea industry is the fact that, for more than a decade, annual sales totals (cumulative totals for all packaging formats and distribution channels) have grown consistently in the United States with very few types of tea showing anything other than consistent gains. The onslaught of hundreds of new retail tea outlets — and thousands more projected to open in the next few years — parallels the germinal stages of the fledgling US natural foods industry circa 1980-2000. Independent tea shops, as occurred with “mom-and-pop” natural foods outlets, are morphing into multi-unit chains, and increasing merger and acquisition activity of even smaller tea brands is underway.

Interviews with tea industry experts categorically point to a robust and thriving marketplace for tea and herbal tea for many years to come. Consumers seeking to enhance individual self-care programs coupled with the overwhelmingly positive media coverage of the health benefits of tea are further catalyzing the marketplace.

As it has done for eons, tea is satisfying the needs of consumer populations seeking economical, healthier ways to quench thirst, support health, and nurture well-being.


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  2. Tea and Ready-to-Drink Tea in the U.S.: Retail and Foodservice, 5th ed. Packaged Facts website. Available at: www.packagedfacts.com/Tea-Ready-Drink-8090955/. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  3. Teavana fine teas + tea bar debuts in New York City’s Upper East Side. Starbucks website. Available at: http://news.starbucks.com/news/teavana-fine-teas-tea-bar-debuts-in-new-york-citys-upper-east-side. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  4. O’Connor C. Starbucks opens its first tea bar as CEO Schultz bets on $90 billion market. October 23, 2013. Forbes. Available at: www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/10/23/starbucks-opens-its-first-tea-bar-as-ceo-schultz-bets-on-90-billion-market/. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  5. Jage G. The greatest tea retail expansion has begun. World Tea News website. Available at: www.worldteanews.com/insights/greatest-tea-retail-expansion-era-begun. Accessed November 6, 2014.

  6. Special issue: US beverage results for 2013. Beverage Digest. Available at: www.beverage-digest.com/pdf/top-10_2014.pdf. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  7. Lindstrom A, Ooyen C, Lynch ME, Blumenthal M, Kawa K. Sales of herbal dietary supplements increase by 7.9% in 2013, marking a decade of rising sales. HerbalGram. 2014;103:52-56.

  8. RTD tea: the ultimate victor. World Tea News website. Available at: www.worldteanews.com/news/rtd-tea-ultimate-victor. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  9. Global Iced/RTD Tea Drinks Report. PR Newswire. Available at: www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-icedrtd-tea-drinks-report-2013-234062051.html. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  10. Coca-cola earnings review: volatile emerging economies limit top line growth. Trefis website. Available at: www.trefis.com/articles/category/by-company/ko. Accessed November 3, 2014.

  11. What is GMO? Agricultural crops that have a risk of being GMO. Non-GMO Project website. Available at: www.nongmoproject.org/learn-more/what-is-gmo/. Accessed November 6, 2014.

  12. Eucalyptus. GMO Compass website. Available at: www.gmo-compass.org/eng/database/plants/34.eucalyptus.html. Accessed November 6, 2014.

  13. Nature vs. ‘Nurture’: The Splicing and Dicing of Our Food Supply. SPINS Trendwatch. Schaumberg, Illinois: SPINSscan Natural. 2014: 1-2.